The hot-filament ionization gauge is widely used for measuring the level of vacuum. The electrons are emitted from a hot cathode and accelerated towards the anode. In that process the electron may ionize a gas molecule. That gas molecule is pulled towards the collector and ion current is measured with an ammeter.
The Penning Ionization Gauge, also known as cold cathode gauge is used to measure the level of vacuum. High voltage between the anode and the cathode causes gas discharge and the resulting ionic current is measured with an ammeter. The measured amperes are then converted into pressure units such as Pascals or Torrs.