How to use an ion gun in scanning electron microscopy studies? In this video we will demonstrate how a focused ion beam (created with an ion gun) can be used to study sophisticated substrates and creating microscopic structures.
What does a horse tooth look like under a scanning electron microscope? In this episode we study a real horse tooth that was extracted from a horse due to dental problems.
What do salt and sugar really look like in the microscopic scale? We try to answer this question by studying these compounds in unprecedented detail under a powerful scanning electron microscope.
What Does a fly look like under the scanning electron microscope? In this video we will explain how biological samples are prepared for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies. We will also take some images of the eye, leg, mouth and wing of the fly.
A solid oxide fuel cell is an electrochemical device that produces electrical energy by oxidizing fuel. The system itself consists of a porous anode and cathode that are separated by an ion conductive solid electrolyte. In this device the fuel is oxidized at the anode while the reduction of oxygen takes place at the cathode. These reactions are possible if the electrons participating in this process can move from the anode to cathode but the only way to do that is to use an outer circuit. And that’s where we can harness the electrical energy. In order to gain a better understanding of this sophisticated device, you can watch our short educational video in YouTube;
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We just published one of our most sophisticated videos made so far. It is about corrosion in space due to radiation and in the video we will discuss different radiation-matter interactions.
How Does Radiation Cause Corrosion in Space? This is actually quite complicated as the radiation in space covers a wide spectral range and the interaction between matter and radiation depends on the wavelength (energy) of the radiation. Anyhow, radiation can be divided into two groups – ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. Non-ionizing radiation such as infrared or visible light can only damage the material if the intensity is high (e.g. laser beam). Ionizing radiation like UV-light, X-rays and gamma rays on the other hand has already enough energy to remove electrons from atoms and this degrades materials over time. In the case of high energy gamma radiation there are also other interactions possible such as the creation of electron-positron couples, compton scattering, photodisintegration and photofission. Learn more about corrosion in space by watching our new science video:
We just published a new video about corrosion in space due to charged particles. Its the 2nd episode in a three part series.
How and why do charged particles cause corrosion of materials in space? This is a question asked by many spacecraft engineers and the answer is not so simple. Namely, there is a whole zoo of different particles and every single one of them interacts with the matter in a unique way. The general rule however is that particles which have a higher mass, charge and velocity, cause more damage. For instance, electrons have a negative charge and in a scanning electron microscope they travel at about 20% of the speed of light but they hardly damage the studied substrate. Ions however have not only a charge but also a lot of mass and therefore they can also cause serious damage if their velocity is sufficient. A completely different story is with antimatter particles such as positrons and anti-protons. When these hit regular matter, then both the particle and the surface of regular matter is converted into energy in the form of gamma radiation. This radiation however can ionize the nearby matter and also do serious damage to electronics, which is shielded from particles but not from gamma rays. High energy radiation is also created when regular charged particles such as protons and electrons interact with the matter as the excess energy is released as braking light (bremsstrahlung), when the high velocity of the particle suddenly changes to zero upon hitting the surface of a material. Anyhow, the spacecrafts are constantly being bombarded with different particles and this slowly degrades the surface of the material and the resulting radiation also has a devastating effect on the electronics. Learn more by watching our new science video: